Power Tools

How Does a Drill Driver Work?

Drill drivers are power tool engineered to insert and remove screws and to drill holes. For the most part, it is not really a drill pressor, but the thing is, a cordless drill driver is still crucial for making a crucial decision when working on your projects. But first and foremost, you must ensure that you really need a drill driver because otherwise your hard-earned money might get wasted.

Now, there are two types of drill driver. The first one is a corded one that needs a power cable to work. Obviously, this one comes with a lot of power because it is directly getting power from an outlet.

The next type is called cordless drill driver. This type is powered by a rechargeable battery, which means no need to get annoyed with cables getting tangled up.

Since these two types of drill drivers essentially work on the same principle, we will be mainly discussing how a cordless drill driver works. Now, let’s get this started!

Basic Components

There are a lot of cordless drill driver models out there, but basically most of them come with basic components.


For cordless drill drivers, you can find a motor inside their body. Motor is either powered by rechargeable battery or from a direct electricity source. The motor’s job is to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy, which ultimately prove the needed rotation to turn the chuck.

Selector Switch

There are some drill drivers that come with some gears and thus also comes with speed ranges. This implies that these types of drill drivers can do a wider number of tasks. In addition, the gear selector switch enables users to alternate between gears.

Torque Control

For all we know, torque is the turning force of any drill drivers. And according drillanddriver.com‘s recommended, in particular most cordless drill drivers come with a torque control that enables them to regulate the “torque”. You see, how much torque you require will most likely depend on the material you’re planning to work on, the size of the screw you want to put in, as well as the diameter of the hole that you’re looking to drill.


This component’s job is to hold in place the detachable accessories like the screwdriver or drill bits. All cordless driver units out there come with a 3-jawed chuck.

Forward and Reverse Button

The forward and reverse button enables you to alternate the direction of the tool, in which the unit turns the drill bit. The forward button is utilized for drilling and driving in screws. On the other hand, the reverser button is utilized for backing out drill bits and getting rid of screws. The forward and reverse button is normally integrated above the trigger, so users can easily reach it with their forefinger or thumb.

LED Light

Drill drivers, particularly cordless units are usually integrated with LED light which makes them capable for working in poorly-lit areas. LED lights are normally placed underneath of the tool. But sometimes, they can also be located on the chuck or on top of the tool. LED light will automatically turn on when the speed control trigger is pulled.

Speed Control Trigger

For the most part, drill drivers are operated with the help of speed control trigger. By pulling the speed control trigger, the chuck will start turning. The further you pull the speed control trigger, the faster the tool will go. You just need to release the trigger if you want to slow down or completely stop the unit.

Driver Grip

The driver grip is where the drill driver is help. There are some units that are incorporated with a textured rubber grip. Some models come with contours in the housing’s plastic surface. Most of the time, a textured rubber handle provides more grip in moist environment and makes using the tool more comfortable to hold for long periods of time.


Unlike corded drill drivers, cordless units are powered by a rechargeable battery and usually come with their own charger. For most units, the battery is detachable and can be removed from the tool if it needs to get charged. There are three kinds of batteries, namely: Lithium-Ion, Nickel-Metal Hydride, and Nickel-Cadmium.

How a Cordless Drill Driver Actually Work?

Imagine of a cordless driver just like an electrical circuit. Each time you pull the speed control trigger of the tool, you are simply completing the circuit, enabling power to flow through the unit. Here’s how a cordless drill driver work:

#1 Battery

Of course, cordless drill drivers come with a rechargeable battery.

#2 Speed Control Trigger

When the user pull the speed control trigger, a switch on the other end of the trigger attracts electricity from the rechargeable battery to the motor.


The motor then converts the battery’s electrical energy into mechanical energy, which then provides the needed rotation to turn the chuck.

#Gear Box

The power output is an amalgamation of speed and torque and is transferred to the chuck using the gearbox. Mostly depending on the unit, the gearbox may offer the possibility to choose different gears, and respectively speed ranges.

#Rotate Chuck

The motor’s power then causes the chuck to rotate, enabling the tool to drive screws or drill holes, of course that is with the use of the right screwdriver bit or drill bit.

Final Thoughts

You see, it’s important to know how these tools work especially if you are regularly or frequently using them because it will help us to do our work properly. But probably, the most important factor why we should learn how a drill driver works is for safety purposes.

If you don’t want to get injured while working and using a drill driver, make sure you know how it is working first.

That sums it up! Hopefully you learned how a drill driver works. Please share your thoughts in the comment section down below. Thank you!

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